Credits

Bibliography

ACLU v. Reno.  United States District Court for the
     Eastern District of Pennsylvania 1996.

     The overturning of the Communications Decency Act 
     of 1996 by the U.S. District Court in Pennsylvania.


American Civil Liberties Union. "ACLU v. Reno: The 
     Appeal." Online. Internet. 15 December 1996.  Available 
     WWW: www.aclu.org/issues/cyber/trial/appeal.html.

     This source gave general information about the appeal 
     for the Communication Decency Act as well as pointers
     to other sites on the CDA.

---. "The Threat of State Censorship Bills." Online. 
     Internet. 1 December 1996. Available WWW: 
     www.aclu.org/issues/cyber/censor/stbills.html.

     This site was the primary source for the state
     legislation page.  Although it was a very 
     well-organized site, the descriptions of the cases 
     were too brief.

American Family Association.  Letter to Senator James 
     Exon.  4 April 4 1995.  Online.  Internet.  2 
     December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.cdt.org/policy/freespeech/amfam_exon.ltr.html.

     A letter about the American Family Association's
     concerns on the Communications Decency Act of 1995.

Center for Democracy and Technology.  "CDT's 
     Communciations Decency Act Issues Page"
     Online.  Internet.  2 December 1996.  Available 
     WWW: www.cdt.org/cda.html.

     A page on the Communications Decency Act with a 
     chronology of the Communications Decency Act and 
     letters written by those involved.  Remarks made 
     by Newt Gingrich on the Communications Decency Act 
     were also taken from this site.

---.  "CDT's Analysis of the latest Communications 
     Decency Act."  Online.  Internet.  2 December 1996.
     Available WWW: 
     www.cdt.org/policy/freespeech/12_21.cdaanal.html.

     A good study of the controversial portions of the 
     Communications Decency Act.

Clinton Administration.  "Administration Concerns
     Regarding S.652: The Telecommunication Competition
     and Deregulation Act of 1995."  Online.  
     Internet.  5 December 1996.  Available WWW:
     www.cdt.org/policy/legislation/admin_s652_comnts.html.

Crimmins, Barry F.  Testimony before Senate Judiciary 
     Committee.  Hearing on Child Pornography on the 
     Internet.  24 July 1995.  Online.  Internet.  
     Available WWW: 
     www.cdt.org/policy/freespeech/crimmins72495.html.

     Crimmins gave testimony on why he felt online 
     services, such as America Online, should be held 
     more reponsible for the wide-spread, easily-
     accessed child pornography on their systems.

Cushman, Robert F. Cases in Constitutional Law.  New 
     Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

     This source was only used once.  Although it was an 
     excellent book, online sources proved to be more 
     comprehensive and up-to-date.  It did, however, point 
     out historic cases dealing with censorship.

Cyber Patrol.  "Welcome to Cyber Patrol."  Online.  
     Internet.  11 December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.cyberpatrol.com.

     This is an Internet blocker / filter commercial 
     page describing the software aspects and 
     specifications of the blocker / filter.

Dave-O. "Why isn't this page Black?"  Online.  Internet.  
     9 December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.unt.edu/~dmc0001/why_not.html.

     This page describes both sides of the issue of free 
     speech online and gives the author's opinion of why 
     the blue ribbon campaign is so popular.

Electronic Frontier Foundation. "Blue Ribbon Campaign 
     for Online Free Speech."  Online.  Internet.
     10 December 1996.  Available  WWW: 
     www.eff.org/blueribbon.html.

     This page is the home page for the blue ribbon 
     campaign.  The blue ribbon images can be downloaded 
     here and the reasons for the movement can be found 
     here.

---. "Global Action Brief."  Online.  Internet. 9 
     December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.eff.org/pub/Censorship/Foreign_and_local/Singapore/Internet_censorship_bills/960828_sg.advisory.

     A small site with information about the pending 
     Singapore law on Internet censorship.  

---. "EFF 'Cases Stratton Oakmont Inc. & Porush v. 
     Prodigy' Archive."  Online.  Internet.  9 December 
     1996.  Available WWW:  
     www.eff.org/pub/Legal/Cases/Stratton_Oakmont_Porush_v_Prodigy.

     A site with all of the information needed to 
     research this particular case.

Electronic Privacy Information Center.  "Communications 
     Decency Act."  Online.  Internet.  2 December 1996.
     Available WWW: www.epic.org/free_speech/cda.

     A page against the Communications Decency Act, with 
     statements made by the Electronic Privacy 
     Information Center, a plaintiff in the ACLU v. Reno 
     case, and links to House and Senate versions of the 
     bill.

"Frequently Asked Questions About the 1995 Communications 
     Decency Act."  Online.  Internet.  7 December 1996.
     Available Gopher:
     gopher.panix.com/vtw/exon/index.html.

     An analysis and history of the Communications 
     Decency Act and definitions of terminology used in 
     the bill.

Godwin, Mike.  "Virtual Community Standards: BBS 
     Obscenity Case Raises New Legal Issues."  Online.
     Internet.  2 December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.eff.org/pub/Censorship/obscen_virtcom_stds_godwin.article.

     A paper on U.S. v Thomas.  Provided most of the
     information behind it.

Gray, Matthew. "Web Growth Summary."  Online.  Internet.
     1 December 1996.  Available WWW:
     www.mit.edu/people/mkgray/net/web-growth-summary.html.

     Gray provides in-depth statistics on the growth of
     the World Wide Web, with comparisons to telnet, 
     ftp, gopher, and email.

H.R. 1978 Sec. 1.  1995.

     The Internet Freedom and Family Empowerment Act, a 
     house bill that would have promoted technologies 
     that block or screen offensive material on the 
     Internet.

Hoffman, Mike.  "Green Ribbon."  e-mail to author. 17 
     December 1996.

     Mr. Hoffman answered questions about the green 
     ribbon campaign and how it relates to the blue 
     ribbon campaign.  The interview also clarified 
     Zondervan Publishing House's stance on free speech 
     online.

Hyatt, Donald.  Personal Interview.  6 December 1996.

     Computer Systems Lab Director at Thomas Jefferson 
     High School for Science and Technology, Mr. Hyatt 
     clearly defined the difficulties in regulating the 
     Internet and provided his views on what content 
     should appear on the Internet.

Intergo.  "InterGO's KinderGuard."  Online.  Internet.  
     11 December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.intergo.com/tour/kguard.htm.

     This is an Internet filter commercial page           
     describing the software aspects and specifications
     of the filter.                                              

Markus, Kent.  Letter to Senator Patrick J. Leahy.  3 
     May 1995.  Online.  Internet.  2 December 1996.  
     Available WWW:
     www.cdt.org/policy/freespeech/doj_050395.ltr.html.

     The Department of Justice's concerns on the 
     Communications Decency Act of 1996.

Mendels, Pamela. "ACLU Fights Georgia Internet Fraud Law."
     The New York Times.  Online.  Internet.  9 December
     1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.nytimes.com:80/library/cyber/week/0719states-georgia.html.

     A short article that pointed the way to the ACLU site
     which had more comprehensive information.  However, 
     it did provide two sides of the argument over free
     speech online.

"Morality in Media Calls for Rejection of Senator Exon's
     'Communications Decency Act.'"  28 March 1995.  
     Online.  Internet.  5 December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.cdt.org/policy/freespeech/mim_pr.html.

     The Morality in Media's concerns over the
     Communications Decency Act of 1996, with quotes from 
     the president of Morality in Media, Robert Peters.

Recreational Software Advisory Council.  "Welcome to 
     RSAC."  Online.  Internet.  16 December 1996.  
     Available WWW: www.rsac.org.

     This page is the official RSAC page.  It describes
     what the RSAC is and allows web authors to register
     their pages with the RSAC.

Regan, Priscilla.  Personal Interview.  9 December 1996.

     An expert on privacy issues and the Internet, Dr. 
     Regan explained why there are different regulations 
     covering broadcast and print media.

Responsible Speech Campaign. "Speak Responsibly."
     Online.  Internet.  13 December 1996.  Available                       
     WWW: www.pageturners.com/CDA/.

     This is the white ribbon campaign home page.  It
     gives the views of the white ribbon campaign and
     clarifies the points which the Responsible
     Speech Campaign believes are often misinterpreted.

Rose, Lance.  Netlaw: Your Rights in the Online World.
     New York: Osborne Mcgraw-Hill.  1995.

     An excellent book on legal issues surrounding the 
     Internet.  If only one book was to be used, this book 
     is it.  It not only had information on censorship,
     but it also contained information on privacy, 
     copyright and online property.

S. 314 Sec. 1.  1995.

     Senator Exon's originial proposal for 
     Communications Decency Act as it was introduced to 
     the Senate on February 1, 1995.

S. 652 Sec. 501.  1996.

     The Communications Decency Act of 1996 as it was 
     sent to the President.

S. 714 Sec. 501.  1995.
     A bill, introduced by Senator Leahy, to repeal the 
     Communications Decency Act of 1996 that was 
     introduced by Senator Patrick Leahy.

S. 892 Sec. 1.  1995.

     The Protection of Children From Computer 
     Pornography Act of 1995 that was introduced by 
     Senator Grassley, but never passed in the Senate.

Safesurf.  "SafeSurf Home Page."  Online.  Internet.  11 
     December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.safesurf.com.

     A page describing the features and specifications 
     of Safesurf, an Internet filter.

Schwartz, John.  "Court Upholds Free Speech on the
     Internet, Blocks Decency Law."  The Washington Post
     13 June 1996, late ed.: A1.

     An article on the overturning of the Communications 
     Decency Acy by a three-judge panel in Pennsylvania.

Spitzer, Art.  Personal Interview.  9 December 1996.

     A lawyer for the American Civil Liberties Union,
     Mr. Spitzer provided detailed information on the 
     ACLU v. Reno case and the right of schools to 
     regulate material on their Web servers.

Solid Oak Software.  "CYBERsitter Product Information."
     Online.  Internet.  11 December 1996.  Available 
     WWW: www.solidoak.com/cysitter.htm.

     A page giving product information on CYBERsitter,
     an Internet content filter produced by Solid Oak 
     Software.
                                                                       
Spyglass.  "SurfWatch from Spyglass."  Online.  
     Internet.  11 December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.surfwatch.com/.

     A page describing the features of SurfWatch, an
     Internet content filter produced by Spyglass.

Telecommunications and Computer Operations Use of 
     Fairfax County Public School's Internet Access.  
     1996.

     This was used to find out the Fairfax County rules 
     and regulations regarding the use of County owned
     computers.

Voters Telecommunications Watch.  "Voters 
     Telecommunications Watch."  Online.  Internet.  14 
     December 1996.  Available  WWW: www.vtw.org.

     This page gives the current data on what court cases are
     happening and what movements for free speech are happening online.

Wallace, Jonathan.  "The Religious Right and Internet Censorship."
     Online.  Internet.  7 December 1996. Available WWW:
     www.magnet.ch/serendipity/cda/wallace.html.

     A brief history of the Communications Decency Act, 
     from its introduction by Senator Exon to its 
     signing into law by President Clinton.

Yahoo!  "Black Thursday."  Online.  Internet.  10 
     December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     mirrors.yahoo.com/eff/speech.html.

     This is a Yahoo! page that describes the reason behind 
     the "Black Thursday" occurance.  It also describes the 
     reason for the free speech online movement. 

Zondervan Publishing House.  "The Zondervan Publishing 
     House Green Ribbon Campaign."  Online.  Internet. 
     14 December 1996.  Available WWW: 
     www.zondervan.com/greenzon.htm.

     This page describes the aspects of the green ribbon 
     campaign and where it stands on free speech online.  
     It has links to pages that support the green ribbon 
     campaign.

Artwork Credits

Logos generated by kwc using WordArt 2.0 and Paint Shop Pro
"Three Flags" by Jasper Johns
Newspaper picture obtained from washingtonpost.com
Gavel picture modified from gavel02.gif by Knut Torgersen
rib_link.gif, provscen.gif, blocker.gif by kwc
Safesurf, Kinderguard, Surfwatch, and Cyber Patrol logos used with permission

Credits for this Web site

Topics page by Ben Chen and kwc
National Legislation page by kwc
Virginia Legislation page by Chang Choi
Fairfax County Legislation page by Ben Chen
In the News page by Chang Choi
Court Cases page by Chang Choi and Ashish Koul
Blocker/Filter page by Ben Chen and kwc
Ribbon Campaigns page by Ben Chen and kwc
Guestbook and interactive survey by Chang Choi
Links page by Ben Chen, kwc, and Chang Choi
Credits page Ben Chen, kwc, and Chang Choi
Artwork and layout by kwc

SafeSurf Rated All Ages


Restrictions to Freedom of Speech Online
Logo Ben Chen (Web/e-mail)
Chang Choi (e-mail)
kwc (Web/e-mail)
Ashish Koul (e-mail)
Copyright © 1997 B. Chen, et al.
All rights reserved.